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 Surname   Forename   Rank   Notes   Unit 
KrugerGerhardus Hendrik JLuitDTD (Luit. G. H. Kruger), ABO (Luit. G. H. Kruger), 1914-15 Star (Lt. G. H. J. Kruger, 4th S.A.M.R.), BWM, VM (Lt. G. H. J. Kruger). Gerhardus Hendrik J. Kruger, who served in the Staatsartillerie, was also entitled to wear the Lint Voor Winden (L.V.W.) wound riband. During the Great War he served as a Trooper in the 8th South African Mounted Rifles (Steynsburg Troop) from February to May 1915, prior to gaining a commission in the 4th Mounted Rifles; his 1914-15 Trio was issued to him in 1931. DNW Sep 07 £3000Boer Forces
KrugerStephen J PaulBorn Oct 10, 1825, in the Colesberg district of the Cape Colony. He was reared in a hard school, his rough training on the veldt, during which his life often depended on his readiness of resource, presence of mind and physical strength, early in life endowed him with those qualities of self-reliance and resource which wore to prove so useful to him in his later years. His boyhood was spent in the manner familiar to the Boers of the early days— farming, hunting, and trekking. There wore no facilities for his receiving any scholastic training, nor did he afterwards add much to his natural sagacity by book reading. Such as it was, however, Paul Kruger's early training only encouraged those characteristics which enabled him to load the movement which wrested the control of the Transvaal from the most formidable empire the world has yet soon, and to hold his own for years in the face of opposition before which the boldest might well have quailed. At the age of ten he accompanied his father on the great trek in search of a new country where they might settle untrammeled by the restrictions of civilised government. At that time the territory lying between the Vaal and the Limpopo rivers was being raided by Mosilikatsi, a Zulu sub-chief who had seceded from the main body of his nation with a large number of followers, and young Kruger— then a lad of twelve years—saw his first active service under Comdt. Potgeiter. Soon after Mr Kruger served under Comdt. Prctorius in the operations against Dingaan, and was present at the desperate fight which took place at the Blood River on Dec 16, 1838, where the few Boers gained a great victory which it has been their custom to celebrate every year since then. He also took part in the punitive expedition against Mosilikatsi in 1839. In 1841 Mr Kruger became a Field Cornet. In 1852 he was appointed Comdt. of the Districts of Pretoria and Potchefstroom, and in 1856 he began to make for himself a position in local politics, associating himself with General Pretorius in his attempt to join the three independent communities of Lydenburg, Zoutpansberg, and Potchefstroom under one Government, with a new Volksraad, constitution, and capital in Potchefstroom. Pretorius also sought to absorb the OFS, and demanded in the Volksraad at Bloemfontein that the administration of the OFS should be handed over to him. Being ordered to leave the country, however, he returned to the Transvaal, collected an Army, and marched with it back to the Free State, but was met on the banks of the Rhenoster River by Free State forces. A conference was afterwards held, and Prctorius bound himself not again to enter the OFS without permission of its Government Many Free Staters who had joined the northern invaders were then tried for high treason, and it is on record how their sentences were reduced to nominal fines owing to the solicitations of Messrs. Kruger and Steyn. As a matter of interest in showing the trend of Mr Kruger's character in those first days of his public career, the President of the Free State, referring to this invasion, stated in the Raad that he had proof that the raiders had made a hideous complot with the Basutos under Moshesh to join in the attack against the Orange Republic. In 1862 Mr Kruger became Comdt. General, and was elected a member of the Executive Council. Some years later (1877) he promised President Burgers his support on the question of the inevitable annexation of the Transvaal, but Mr Kruger secretly prompted the resistance of the irreconcilables, and eventually (May, 1877) left for England with Dr Jorissen to protest against the measure. But it was not thought that either member of the commission really wished the Act of Annexation to be annulled. In fact, on returning to the Transvaal, they both took office under the British Government, Mr Kruger only relinquishing his post owing to the refusal of the Govt, to increase his remuneration. After the Convention of 1881 Mr Kruger as Vice-President formed one of the triumvirate in whom the Govt, was vested, but in 1882 the old form was restored and he was elected President of the Transvaal State. From this time until the Boer War Mr Kruger's history is the history of the Transvaal. His policy soon began to declare itself. In that year the first of many laws was passed extending the term of residence for aliens to qualify for naturalisation from one to five years. Soon followed the granting of monopolies, the agitation for the removal of the Suzerainty and freedom in their external relations, whilst he also looked around for new countries to he acquired. Thus Mr Kruger's Govt, annexed Mafeking and part of Bechuanaland until the Warren Expedition caused a retreat; part of Zululand was taken over, and hungry eyes were turned towards Swaziland (the cession of which we ultimately permitted). In 1890-91 an expedition was sent to Chartered territory, but was appropriately turned back at Rhodes' Drift. Tongaland was also coveted. Meanwhile in 1884 the President and Mr Smit proceeded to Europe to endeavour to obtain some modification of the Convention and to raise much needed funds, in both of which they were only partially successful. But the discovery of gold at Moodies in 1885-6, and on the Witwatersrand later, brought revenue to the country, which enabled Mr Kruger to pursue his schemes without remedying the ill condition of the Government, or providing for the large population which began to flock into the country, and without allowing it, after reasonable residence, a participation in the management of State or even Municipal affairs. Political agitation for reforms, improved ways of communication, remission of taxes, security of titles, etc., gave birth to the Transvaal Republican Union of Johannesburg. The Witwatersrand Chamber of Mines was also formed partly to protect shareholders' interests, and for eight years this Chamber pleaded to the Volksraad for reforms and representation. But Mr Kruger remained obdurate. Legislation was passed making this practically an impossibility to the then living generation of Uitlanders who had taken up their residence in the Republic. Railways were kept out of the country as long as possible, and then construction was only permitted under such terms as were granted under the Netherlands Railway and Sclati Railway concessions, in which connection it may be mentioned that the Selati Railway Company, in order to obtain its concession, had to pay bribes or make presents to many members and officials of the First Volksraad. The dynamite concession was another iniquitous burden upon the industry which had built up the fortunes of the country. President Kruger resolutely set himself against mitigating the abuses which these concerns imposed upon the legitimate industries on the Transvaal. It is true that he secured the Raad's cancellation of the latter concession, but in a few months it was renewed in a still more obnoxious form. In 1888 Mr Kruger was re-elected President without much opposition, General Joubert receiving but few votes, but in 1893 he only defeated the General by 7,551 votes to 7,009. About this time Mr Kruger's control over affairs appeared to be none too sure. Accordingly, in defiance of the Grondwet (Constitution) he appointed Mr Koch, the Landdrost and Polling Officer of Potchefstroom who had contrived the defeat of Mr Esselen at election, Minute Keeper to the Executive with the right to vote, which with the President's casting vote, assured the latter the predominant voice in the council. His position thus strengthened, the President turned his attention to other matters, endeavouring, not without some success, to subordinate justice in the courts to the requirements of his government, curtailing the liberty of the Press, and withholding the right of public meetings and political organisation. However, the attempt to wrest from the High Court the decision in the cyanide case while still sub judice miscarried; the endeavour to deprive the mines of their Bewaarplaatsen rights only failed after the Minister of Mines had, on his own responsibility, issued the claim licences, and so forced the Volksraad to face the issue of confirming or reBoer Forces
KrynieWillemArtilleristAwarded the ABO. Gen. MullerBoer Forces
LabuschagneThunes JacobusBurgerAwarded the ABO. PretoriaBoer Forces
LanserBastiaanHeliografistAwarded the ABO. StaatsartillerieBoer Forces
LemmerHermanus RichardusGeneralA cattle farmer born in 1859, he fought in the native campaigns and was elected to the Volksraad. He started the Boer War as a burger but quickly gained promotion to general on the basis is his fighting ability.He led the Litchenburg commando and was killed in 1900. Boer Forces
LemmerLodewylGeneralHe was born near Marico in 1864. He fought in the First Boer War and subsequently worked as a teacher and customs official. During the war, he was promoted to the rank of commandant in 1901 and general shortly afterwards. In 1907 he was elected to the Transvaal Parliament. During the Great War he saw action in German South-West Africa. Later, he was a member of the Union House of Assembly and was a member of the Native Affairs Commission under General Smuts. Boer Forces
LessingJohannes HendrikArtilleristAwarded the ABO. ArtillerieBoer Forces
LessingMaarten Petrus AlbertusArtilleristAwarded the ABO. Gen. PrinslooBoer Forces
LewisBarend Jacobus LourensSersantAwarded the ABO. StaatsartillerieBoer Forces
LeydsDoctor Willem JohannesHe was was born at Java in 1859. He was recommended to Mr Kruger in 1884 by Professor Moltzer of Amsterdam University because of his potential. He served as Attorney General in 1884. Boer Forces
LigthelmWillem KoenraadArtilleristAwarded the ABO. MiddelburgBoer Forces
LoggenbergNicholaas JohannesArtilleristAwarded the ABO. Gen. P.CronjeBoer Forces
LotterJ CCommandantLotter ran a business in Naauwpoort, Cape Colony and was branded a 'Cape Rebel' when he joined the Boer cause. He operated with Commandant Kritzinger and Commandant Fouche in the Cape. he was wounded in the engagement of Jackalsfontein near Craddock on 21 July 1901.He was captured at Bouwershoek on 5 September 1901. He was tried for treason and other charges and found guilty. He was executed in Middelburg.Boer Forces
LotteringFrancois Johannes J.BurgerAwarded the ABO. StaatsartillerieBoer Forces
LubbeBarend NicolaasHeliografistAwarded the ABO. O.V.S. ArtillerieBoer Forces
LynchArthur AlfredColonelBorn in Australia. After the Boer War broke out he swore allegiance to the SAR, and became a burgher of that State. He was appointed to the command of the Irish Brigade, fighting on the Boer side. He was elected MP for Galway in Jan, 1900. He subsequently took up his residence in Paris, describing himself as a journalist. In connection with Colonel Lynch's fighting in the Boer ranks, he came over to England voluntarily to answer to the charge of high treason, for which crime he was sentenced to death by Mr Justice Wills on Jan 23, 1903. The sentence was immediately commuted to penal servitude for life, but he was released after twelve months' imprisonment in Lewes Gaol. Boer Forces
MahneTobias GerhardusArtilleristAwarded the ABO. PretoriaBoer Forces
MalanFrancois StephanusMember of the Legislative Assembly (Malmesbury), of Schoongezicht, Kloof St, Cape Town, is the son of Daniel G Malan, of Leeuwenjacht, Paarl, and is descended from French Huguenot stock, Jacques Malan, his direct ancestor, having landed in SA in 1689. Born March 12, 1871, in the district of the Paarl, he was educated at Paarl; Victoria College, Stellenbosch; and Cambridge, graduating BA (Science) Cape University; also LLB Cambridge Admitted as an Advocate of the Supreme Court, Cape Colony, Aug, 1895 Appointed editor, November 15, 1895, of Ons Land, one of the leading Dutch newspapers in Cape Colony Elected unopposed Member of the Legislative Assembly for Malmesbury in succession to the Hon W P Schreiner, Sep, 1900; re-elected Feb, 1904; was convicted for publishing defamatory libel on General French, April 19, 1901, and sentenced to twelve months' imprisonment without hard labour. He is one of the most prominent politicians of the SA party, and commands a very large following among the Dutch. Married to Miss Johanna Brummer, Sep 21, 1897.Boer Forces
MandersHendrik AlfredArtilleristAwarded the ABO. ArtillerieBoer Forces
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